[Home] [Background] [Frameworks] [Projects] [Organisations] [Bibliography] [Journals] [Software] [Other Links]

If there is no navigation frame to the left, click here.


The starting point for this bibliography was a wish to take a complex systems perspective in applied linguistics research.  In particular, making sense of data on spoken interaction in institutional settings.  However, as there are no existing, or rather, established, ways of applying complex systems theory to the study of spoken interaction (or applied linguistics more generally for that matter), the bibliography has grown to encompass a great number of other fields in the social sciences.  To me the bibliography has turned into an interdisciplinary resource in my ongoing attempt at developing a scientifically based complex systems framework for the analysis of spoken interaction. It is posted here because the interdisciplinary focus of the bibliography may make it a useful resource for others who wish to make sense of real world data from a complex systems (or related) perspective.

How to search the bibliography:

  1. Use the Find in Page/Frame utility of your Browser (click EDIT on the drop down menu, go down to ‘Find in Page’ or ‘Find in Frame’ and then enter a word or phrase to search for).
  2. Use the below hyper links to jump to a relevant section of the bibliography.   To return again to this list of hyper links just click on one of the butterflies (or your browser’s BACK button).

butterfly (Clicking on a butterfly, like this one, will send you (back) to this table of hyper-links).

General Social Science / Philosophy of Science





Cognitive & Developmental Psychology



Social Psychology and Sociology






Language / Applied Linguistics



Organisational Science



Politics, Geography and Economics



Neo-behavioral Human Systems Analysis






A few notes on the compilation of the bibliography:

  • Only publications which are publicly available (through a good library, or on the internet) are included.
  • The symbol * preceeding an entry means that the publication is not (or appears not to be) peer-reviewed.
  • In the THEORETICAL sections, individual papers in edited volumes are NOT listed separately.
  • In the STUDIES sections, individual papers in edited volumes ARE listed seperately.
  • Strictly quantitative applications (e.g., much work in Economics) have generally been left out.
  • Work which involves modeling and/or simulation has NOT been included.  Such work does not fit into the herein espoused definition of Real World Research.


General Section on Social Science / Philosophy of Science 1970s and earlier:

Isnard, C. A. and E. C. Zeeman (1976). Some models from catastrophe theory in social science. The use of models in social sciences. L. Collins. London, Tavistock.

Pattee, H. H., Ed. (1973). Hierarchy theory: the challenge of complex systems. New York, George Braziller.


General Section on Social Science / Philosophy of Science 1980s:

Allen P. M. (1982). The genesis of structure in social systems: the paradigm of self-organization. Theory and explanation in archeology. C. Renfrew. New York, Academic Press.

Allen, P. M. (1988). Evolution: why the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Ecodynamics. W. Wolft, C. J. Soeder and F. R. Drepper. Berlin, Springer Verlag.

Allen, P. M., G. Engelen, et al. (1983). Self-organizing models in human systems. Synergetics: from microscopic to macroscopic order. E. Frehland. Berlin, Springer Verlag.

Bak, P. K., K. Chen, et al. (1989). Self-organized criticality in the game of life. Nature: 780.

Csányi, V. (1989). Evolutionary systems and society: A general theory of life, mind, and culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Druwe, U. (1988). “"Selbstorganisation" in den sozialwissenschaften: Wissenschaftsttheoretische anmerkungen zur ubertragung der naturwissenschaftlichen selbsorganisation auf sozialwissenscaftliche fragestellungen ["Self-organization" in the social sciences: scientific and theoretical remarks on the contribution of self-organization in the natural sciences to social scientific research].” Kolner Zeitschrift Fur Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 40: 762-775.

Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos: making of a new science. New York, Penguin Books.

Gould, P. (1987). “A critique of dissipative structures in the human realm.” European Journal of Operational Research 30: 211-221.

Haken, H. (1984). The science of structure: Synergetics. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Loye, D. and R. Eisler (1987). “Chaos and transformation: implications of nonequilibrium theory for social science and society.” Behavioral Science 32: 53-65.

Mandelbrot, B. B. (1983). The fractal geometry of nature. New York: Freeman.

Prigogine, I. and P. M. Allen (1982). The challenge of complexity. Self-organization and dissipative structures. W. C. Schieve and P. M. Allen. Austin, TX, University of Texas.

Prigogine, Ilya and Isabelle Stengers. (1984). Order Out of Chaos: Man's New Dialogue with Nature. New York: Bantam.


General Section on Social Science / Philosophy of Science 1990s:

Allen, P. M. (1994). “Coherence, chaos and evolution in the social context.” Futures 26(6): 583-597.

Bak, P. and K. Chen (1991). Self-organized criticality. Scientific American. January: 26-33.

Beckermann, A., H. Flohr, et al., Eds. (1992). Essays on the prospects of nonreductive physicalism. Berlin, Walter de Gruyter.

Benzon, W. L. and D. G. Hays (1990). “Why natural science leads to complexity.” Journal of Social and Biological Structures 13(1): 33-40.

Brown, C. (1995). Serpents in the sand: essays on the nonlinear nature of politics and human destiny. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.

Brown, J. W. (1995). Implications of microgenesis for a science and philosophy of mind, Dynamical Psychology.

Byrne, D. (1997). Complexity theory and social research, Social Research Update, Issue 18, University of Surrey. Available online: http://www.soc.surrey.ac.uk/sru/SRU18.html

Byrne, D. (1997). Simulation - a way forward?  Sociological Research Online, 2/2. Available online: http://www.socresonline.org.uk/2/2/4.html

Byrne, D. (1998). Complexity theory and the social sciences. London, Routledge.

Clark, A. (1997). Being there: putting brain, body, and world together again. Cambridge, MA, Bradford Book/MIT Press.

Cohen, J. & Stewart, I. (1994). The collapse of chaos: discovering simplicity in a complex world. London: Penguin Books.

Cowan, G. A. et al. (1999). Complexity: Metaphors, Models, and Reality. Perseus.

Faber, J. and H. Koppelaar (1994). “Chaos theory and social science: a methodological analysis.” Quality & Quantity 28: 421-433.

Gell-Mann, M. (1995). “What is complexity?” Complexity1(1): 16-19.

Goldstein, J. (1995). Using the concept of self-organization to understand social system change: strengths and weaknesses.Chaos and society. A. Albert. Amsterdam, IOS Press : 49-62.

Goodwin, Brian. (1994). How the Leopard Lost its Spots: The Evolution of Complexity. NY: Simon & Schuster.

Gregersen, H. and L. Sailer (1993). “Chaos theory and its implications for social science research.” Human Relations46: 778-802.

Guastello, S. J. (1995). Chaos, catastrophe and human affairs. applications of nonlinear dynamics to work, organizations, and social evolution. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Horgan, J. (1995). From complexity to perplexity. Scientific American. 272: 104-109.

Juarrero, A. (1999). Dynamics in action: intentional behavior as a complex system. Cambridge, MA, Bradford Book/MIT Press.

Kauffman, S. (1995). At home in the universe: the search for laws of self-organization and complexity. London, Penguin Books.

Kiel, L. D. (1991). “Lessons from the nonlinear paradigm: applications of the theory of dissipative structures in the social sciences.” Social Science Quarterly 72(3): 431-442.

Kiel, L. D. & Elliott, E. (Eds.) (1995). Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences: Foundations and Applications. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Kiel, L. D. and E. Elliot, Eds. (1996). Chaos theory in the social sciences: foundations and applications. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.

Kiel, L. D. and E. Elliott (1997). Chaos theory in the social sciences. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.

Krohn, W., G. Kuppers, et al., Eds. (1990). Selforganization: portrait of a scientific revolution. Dordrecht, the Netherlands, Kluwer.

Marion, Russ (1999). The Edge of Organization: Chaos and Complexity Theories of Formal Social Systems. London: Sage Publications.

Marion, R. and K. Weaver (1997). Modified Poincare maps and return maps: tools for analyzing social chaos, Presented at the business meeting of the special interest group for chaos and complexity of the American Educational Research Association, Spring, 1997. Available online: http://www.hehd.clemson.edu/Complex/Maps.htm

Waldrop, M. Mitchell. (1992). Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Wimsatt, W. C. (1997). “Aggregativity: reductive heuristics for finding emergence.” Philosophy of Science 64 (Proceedings): S372-S384.


General Section on Social Science / Philosophy of Science 2000 and later:

Andersen, P. B., C. Emmeche, et al., Eds. (2000). Downward causation: Minds, Bodies and Matter. Århus: Aarhus University Press.  See table of contents available online: http://www.nbi.dk/~emmeche/pr/DC.html

Bausch, K. (2000). The emerging consensus in social systems theory. Boston: Kluwer.

Byrne, D. (2002).  Interpreting quantitative data. London: SAGE.

Juarrero, A. (2000). “Dynamics in action: intentional behavior as a complex system.” Emergence 2(2): 24-57.


Cognitive & Developmental Psychology - Theoretical

Abraham, F. D., & Gilgen. A. (Eds.). (1995). Chaos theory in psychology. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Abraham, F. D., Abraham, R. H., & Shaw, C. D. (1990). A visual introduction to dynamical systems theory in psychology. Santa Cruz: Ariel Press.

Abraham, R. H., & Shaw, C. D. (1993). Dynamics, the geometry of behavior (2nd edition). Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.

Barton, S. (1994). “Chaos, self-organization, and psychology.” American Psychologist 46: 475-496.

Bogartz, R. S. (1994). The future of dynamic systems models in developmental psychology in the light of the past. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 58(2), 289-319.

Butz, M. R. (1997). Chaos and Complexity: Implications for Psychological Theory and Practice. Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis.

Cole, M. (1999). Context, modularity, and the cultural constitution of development. Lev Vygotsky: critical assessments. P. Lloyd and C. Fernyhough. London, Routledge. Volume IV: future directions: 74-100.

Cooney, J.B. and Troyer, R. (1994). A dynamic model of reaction time in a short-term memory task. Journal of experimental child psychology, 58, 200-226.

Ehlers, C. L. (1995). “Chaos and complexity: Can it help us understand mood and behavior?” Archives of General Psychiatry 52: 960-964.

Eidelson, R. J. (1997). Complex adaptive systems in the behavioral and social sciences. Review of General Psychology, 1, 42-7.

Eliasmith, C. (1996). The third contender: A critical examination of the dynamicist theory of cognition. Philosophical Psychology. Vol. 9 No. 4 pp. 441-463. Reprinted in P. Thagard (ed) (1998) Mind Readings: Introductory Selections in Cognitive Science. MIT Press. Available online: http://watarts.uwaterloo.ca/~celiasmi/Papers/thirdcontender.html

Eliasmith, C. (in press). Dynamical models and van Gelder's dynamicism: Two different things. Commentary on T. van Gelder. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Available online: http://watarts.uwaterloo.ca/~celiasmi/Papers/vangelderbbs.html

Elman, J. L., E. A. Bates, et al. (1996). Rethinking innateness: a connectionist perspective on development. Bradford Books/MIT Press.

Fabian, T. and M. Stadler (1991). “A chaos theoretical approach to delinquent behavior in psychosocial stress situations.” Gestalt Theory 13 : 98-106.

Freeman, W. and C. Skorda (1990). “Chaotic dynamics versus representationalism.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13: 167-168.

Hannah, T. E. (1990). “Does chaos theory have application to psychology? The example of daily mood fluctuations.” Network 8(3): (whole issue).

Haynes, S. N., D. Blaine, & K. Meyer (1992). Dynamical models for psychological assessment: phase space functions. Psychological Assessment 7 : 17-24.

Heath, R. A. (2000). Nonlinear dynamics: Techniques and applications in psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hutchins, E. (1991). The social organization of distributed cognition. Perspectives on socially shared cognition. L. B. Resnick, J. M. Levine and S. D. Teasley. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association: 283-307.

Kelso, J. A. S. (1995). Dynamic patterns: The self-organization of brain and behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Killeen, P. R. (1989). Behavior as a trajectory through a field of attractors. The computer and the brain: perspectives on artificial intelligence. J. R. Brink and C. R. Haden. New york, Elsevier : 53-82.

Krippner, S., A. J. Ruttenber, et al. (1985). “Toward the application of general systems theory in humanistic psychology.” Systems Research 2 : 105-115.

Langs, M. and A. Badalamenti (1991). “Toward a science of the mind.” Social Dynamicist 2(3): 1-3.

Lewis, M. D. (2000). The promise of dynamic systems approaches for an integrated account of human development. Child Development, 71 (1), 35-43.

Lewis, M. D. & Douglas, L. (1996). A dynamic systems approach to cognition-emotion interactions in development. In F. Mascolo & S. Griffin (Eds.), What develops in emotional development. New York: Plenum (in press).

Lewis, Marc D., Lamey, Alex V., & Douglas, Lori. (1999). A new dynamic systems method for the analysis of early socioemotional development. Developmental Science 2 (4), 457-475.

Metzger, M. A. (1997). Applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory in developmental psychology: Motor and cognitive development. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 1, 55-68.

*Murray, D. & M. Lesser (1998). Mind as a Dynamical System: Implications for Autism. Durham.  Available online: http://www.shifth.mistral.co.uk/autism/mind.htm

Lewis, M. D. (1995). “Cognition-emotion feedback and the self-organization of developmental paths.” Human Development 38: 71-102.

Port, R. F. and T. van Gelder, Eds. (1995). Mind as motion: explorations in the dynamics of cognition. Cambridge, MA, Bradford Books/MIT Press.

Rosales-Ruiz, J. & D. M. Baer (1996). A behavior-analytic view of development. New directions in behavior development. S. W. Bijou & E. Ribes. Reno, NV: Context Press, 155-180.

Salzman, E. and J. Kelso (1987). “Skilled actions: a task dynamic approach.” Psychological Review 94: 84-106.

Schmid-Denter, U. (1992). “Chaos research: a new physical challenge for psychology?” Psychologie Erziehung und Unterricht 39: 1-16.

Schuldberg, D. (1999). Chaos theory and creativity. In M. Runco & S. Pritzker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Creativity, Volume 1, pp. 259-272. N.Y.: Wiley.

Siegler, R. S. (1996). Emerging minds: the process of change in children’s thinking. New York: Oxford University Press.

Skarda, C. A. and W. J. Freeman (1987). “How brains make chaos in order to make sense of the world.” Behavioral and Brain Science 10: 161-195.

Sterman, J. D. (1988). “Deterministic chaos in models of human behavior: methodological issues and experimental results.” System Dynamics Review 4 (1-2): 148-178.

Thelen, E. (1989). Self-organization in developmental processes: can systems approaches work? Systems in development: Minnesota symposium on child psychology, Vol. 22. M. Gunnar and E. Thelen. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum.

Thelen, E. (1990). Dynamical systems and the generation of individual differences. Individual differences in infancy: reliability, stability and prediction. J. Colombo and J. Fagen. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum.

Thelen, E. (1992). “Development as a dynamic system.” Psychological Science 1: 189-193.

Vallacher, R. R., A. Nowak, et al. (in press). Dynamics in the coordination of mind and action. Personality functioning and social cognition: an action control view. G. Weary, M. Kofta and G. Sedek. New York, Plenum.

Valsiner, J. (1994). “Commentary [on Paul van Geert: "Vygotskian dynamics of development"].” Human Development 37: 366-369.

Van Geert, P. (1994). “Vygotskian dynamics of development.” Human Development 37: 346-365.

Van Geert, P. (1995). “Dimensions of change: a semantic and mathematical analysis of learning and development.” Human Development 38: 322-331.

Van Geert, P. (1999). Vygotsky's dynamical systems. Lev Vygotsky: critical assessments. P. Lloyd and C. Fernyhough. London, Routledge. Volume IV: future directions: 3-21.

van Gelder, T. (1997). Dynamics and cognition. Mind design II: philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence. J. Haugeland. Cambridge, MA, Bradford Books/MIT Press : 421-450.

Vroon, P. (1992). “Chaos theory and human behavior.” Psycholoog 27: 2-7.


Cognitive & Developmental Psychology - Studies

Atkins, M. S. (2000). Dynamical analysis of infant social referencing. Unpublished Masters Thesis, West Virginia University.  Available online: http://etd.wvu.edu/ETDS/E1487/atkins_m_etd.pdf

Clayton, K. and B. Frey (1995). Studies of mental 'noise', Originally presented to the Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology and the Life Sciences, Garden City, NY. 2000.

Eckerman, C. (1993). Toddler’s achievement of coordinated action with conspecifics: a dynamic systems perspective. A dynamic systems approach to development: applications. L. B. Smith & E. Thelen. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Fischer, K. W. and N. Granott (1995). “Beyond one-dimensional change: parallel, concurrent, socially distributed processes in learning and development.” Human Development 38: 302-314.

Flor, R. & K. Dooley (1998). “The Dynamics of Learning to Automaticity." Noetic Journal 1(2): 162-178.

Fogel, A. & E. Thelen (1987). Development of early expressive and communicative action: Reinterpreting the evidence from a dynamic systems perspective. Developmental Psychology 23: 747-761.

Guastello, S. J., Johnson, E. A., & Rieke, M. L. (1999). Nonlinear dynamics of motivational flow. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 3, 259-274.

Heath, R. A. (2000). Detecting nonlinearity in psychological data: techniques and applications. Manuscript written for the Society for Computers in Psychology (SCiP) Issue.

Hutchins, E. (1996). Learning to navigate. Understanding practice: perspectives on activity and context. S. Chaiklin and J. Lave. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press : 35-63.

Hutchins, E. and T. Klausen (1996). Distributed cognition in an airline cockpit. Cognition and communication at work. Y. Engeström and D. Middleton. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press : 15-34.

Richards, D. (1990). “Is strategic decision making chaotic?” Behavioral Science 35: 219-232.

* Sale, J. (1998). The hero's journey: criticality and complexity in learning: Human Behavior During the Exploration of a Novel Space. Available online: http://www.banyantree.org/jsale/soc/critlrn6b.html

Thelen, E., D. Corbetta, et al. (1993). “The transition to reaching: mapping intention and intrinsic dynamics.” Child Development 64 : 1058-1098.

Thelen, E. and L. Smith (1994). A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action. Cambridge, MA, Bradford Books/MIT Press.


Social Psychology and Sociology - Theoretical

Allen, P. (1981). Self-organization in human systems. Essays in society system dynamics and transportation management. Washington, DC, US Department of Transportation.

Arrow, H., McGrath, J. E., & Berdahl, J. L. (2001). Small groups as complex systems: Formation, coordination, development, and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Beek, P. J. and B. Hopkins (1992). “Four requirements for a dynamical systems approach to the development of social coordination.” Human Movement Science 11: 425-442.

Buder, E. H. (1991). “A nonlinear dynamic model of social interaction.” Communication Research 18: 174-198.

Butz, M. R., Chamberlain, L. L., & McCown, W. G. (1996). Strange attractors: Chaos, complexity, and the art of family therapy. New York: Wiley.

Cook, J., R. Tyson, et al. (1995). “Mathematics of marital conflict: qualitative dynamic modeling of marital interaction.” Journal of Family Interaction 9: 110-130.

Eve, R. A., S. Horsfall, et al., Eds. (1997). Chaos, complexity, and sociology: myths, models, and theories. Thousand oaks, CA, SAGE.

McClure, B. A. (1998). Putting a New Spin on Groups: The Science of Chaos. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Nowak, A., J. Szamrej, et al. (1990). “From private attitude to public opinion: a dynamic theory of social impact.” Psychological Review 97 : 362-376.

Puddifot, J. E. (2000). “Some problems and possibilities in the study of dynamical social processes.” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 30 (1): 79-97.

Skinner, H. (1989). “Butterfly wings flapping: Do we need more "chaos" in understanding addiction?” British Journal of Addiction 84 : 353-356.

Smith, T. S. and G. T. Stevens (1996). “Emergence, self-organization and social interaction: arousal-dependent structure in social systems.” Sociological Theory 14(2): 131-153.

Vallacher, R. R. and A. Nowak, Eds. (1994). Dynamical systems in social psychology. San Diego, CA, Academic.

Watters, P. A., P. J. Ball, et al. (1996). Social processes as dynamical processes: qualitative dynamical systems theory in social psychology. Current Research in Social Psychology, 1(7).  Available online:  http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.1.7.html

Young, T. R. (1991). “Chaos theory and symbolic interaction theory: poetics for the postmodern sociologist.” Symbolic Interaction 14 (3): 321-334.


Social Psychology and Sociology - Studies

Lange, R. (1999). A cusp catastrophe approach to the prediction of temporal patterns in the kill dates of individual serial murderers. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 3 (2), 143-159.

Hamilton, P., B. West, et al. (1994). “Preliminary evidence of nonlinear dynamics in births to adolescents in Texas, 1964-1990.” Theoretical and Applied Chaos in Nursing 1(1): 15-22.


Education - Theoretical

Barab, S. A., M. Cherkes-Julkowski, et al. (1999). “Principles of self-organisation: learning as participation in autocatakinetic systems.” The Journal of the Learning Sciences 8(3&4): 349-390.  Also seen referred to with following title: Principles of self-organization: ecologizing the learner-facilitator system.

Cherkes-Julkowski, M. (1996). “The child as a self-organizing system: the case against instruction as we know it.” Learning Disabilities7 (1): 19-27.

Cunningham, R. (2001). Chaos, complexity and the study of educational communities. Symposium on Complexity Theory and Education, British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, 2001, Leeds, UK. Available online: http://www.ioe.ac.uk/ccs/conference2000/papers/tpm/papers/cunningham.html

Cziko, G. A. ((1989, April)). “Unpredictability and indeterminism in human behavior: arguments and implications for educational research.” Educational Researcher: 17-25.

Daiyo, S. & M. T. Caley. (1985). "Dissipative Structures: New Metaphors for Becoming in Education." Educational Researcher 14 (3): 13-19.

Doll, W. E. (1989). “Complexity in the classroom.” Educational Leadership 47(1): 65-70.

Ennis, C. D. (1992). “Reconceptualizing learning as a dynamical system.” Journal of Curriculum and Supervision7: 115-130.

Guess, D. and W. Sailor (1993). “Chaos theory and the study of human behavior: implications for special education and developmental disabilities.” Journal of Special Education 27: 16-34.

Houghton, R. S. (1989).  A Chaotic Paradigm: An Alternative World View of the Foundations of Educational Inquiry. Initially completed as a doctoral dissertation in 1989 at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Available, in somewhat ‘expanding’ form at: http://www.ceap.wcu.edu/Houghton/thesisM/chaosthesis.html

Jacobsen, M. J., W. Farrell, et al. (1998). Education in complex systems. Overview of issues presented at the Education in Complex Systems session given at the Second International Conference on Complex Systems, 1998. Available online: http://emergentdesigns.com/mjacobson/iccs98/ICCS98-REVISED_9-21.pdf

Rasmussen, J. (2001). “The importance of communication in teaching: a system-theory approach to the scaffolding metaphor.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 33(5): 569-582.

Resnick, M. & U. Wilensky (REF). “Diving into Complexity: Developing Probabilistic Decentralized Thinking through Role-Playing Activities.” Journal of Learning Sciences 7(2): REF.  Available online: http://ccl.sesp.northwestern.edu/cm/papers/starpeople/

Saba, F. (1999). Self-Organized Educational Systems. http://www.distance-educator.com/der/self.html

Sawada, D. & Caley, M. T. (1985) Dissipative structures: New metaphors for becoming in education. Educational Researcher 14 (3), 13-19.

Salomon, G., Ed. (1993). Distrubuted cognitions: psychological and educational considerations. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Shaw, R. E., J. A. Effken, et al. (1997). “An ecological approach to the on-line assessment of problem-solving paths.” Instructional Science 25 : 151-166.

Taylor, Paul. "Social Epistemic Rhetoric and Chaotic Discourse." Re-Imagining Computer and Composition: Teaching and Research in the Virtual Age. Eds. Gail E. Hawisher and Paul LeBlanc. Portsmouth NH: Boynton/Cook, 1992. 131-148.

Wilensky, U. and M. Resnick (1999). “Thinking in levels: a dynamic systems approach to making sense of the world.” Journal of Science Education and Technology 8(1): 3-19.


Education - Studies

*Bloome, J. W. (2001). Chaotic and complex systems in children's thinking and learning. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, April, 2001.  Available online: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jwb2/research/Complexity/chaosinthinkingpaper.html (Please consult author before citing).

Cherkes-Julkowski, M. and N. Mitlina (1999). “Self-organization of mother-child instructional dyads and later attention disorder.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 32(1): 6-21.


Language / Applied Linguistics - Theoretical

Bleyhl, W. (1997). “Fremdsprachenlernen als dynamischer und nichtlinearer prozeß oder: weshalb die bilanz des traditionellen unterrichts und auch die der fremdsprachenforschung "nicht schmeichelhaft" sein kann.” Fremdsprachen Lehren und Lernen 26: 219-238.

Campbell, Jeremy. (1982). Grammatical Man: Information, Entropy, Language, and Life. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Cooper, David L. (1999). Linguistic Attractors: The Cognitive Dynamics of Language Acquisition and Change. John Benjamins Publishing Co.

Ellis, N. C. (1998). “Emergentism, connectionism and language learning.” Language Learning 48(4): 631-664.

Elman, J. L. (1995). Language as a dynamical system. Mind as motion: explorations in the dynamics of cognition. R. F. Port and T. v. Gelder. Cambridge, MA, Bradford Books/MIT Press : 195-225. Available online: http://crl.ucsd.edu/~elman/Papers/dynamics/dynamics.pdf

Gasser, M. (1990). “Connectionism and universals of second language acquisition.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition 12: 179-199.

Hayles, K. (Ed., 1991). Chaos and Order: Complex Dynamics in Literature in Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Herdina, P. & Jessner, U. (2002). A dynamic model of multilingualism: perspectives of change in psycholinguistics. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Hohenberger, A. (2002). Functional categories in language acquisition: self-organization of a dynamical system. Tuebingen: Niemeyer.

Kindt, D., M. Cholewinski, et al. (Sept. 1999). “Complexity and the language classroom.” Academia: Literature and Language 67 : 235-258. Available online: http://www.nufs.ac.jp/~dukindt/pages/complex.html

Larsen-Freeman, D. (1997). “Chaos/complexity science and second language acquisition.” Applied Linguistics 18(2): 141-165.

MacWhinney, B. (1998). “Models of the emergence of language.” Annual Review of Psychology 49: 199-227.

MacWhinney, B., Ed. (1999). The emergence of language. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum.

Mallows, D. (2002). “Non-linearity and the observed lesson.” ELT Journal 56(1): 3-10.

May, T. (1994). Postsupposition and Pastiche Talk: Mediating Order in Chaos and Language. Dynamical Psychology.  Available online: http://www.goertzel.org/dynapsyc/1997/May.html

Niyogi, P. & R. C. Berwick (1997). Evolutionary consequences of language learning. Linguistics and Philosophy 20: 697-719.

Niyogi, P. & R. C. Berwick (1998). The logical problem of language change: a case study of European Portuguese. Syntax 1(2): 192-205.

Niyogi, P. (1997).  The Informational Complexity of Learning. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Prabhu, N. S. (1992). “The dynamics of the language lesson.” TESOL Quarterly 26(2): 225-241.

Sokolik, M. E. (1990). “Learning without rules: PDP and a resolution of the adult language learning paradox.” TESOL Quarterly 24(4): 685-696.

Sower, C. (1997). “An attitude of inquiry: an interview with Diane Larsen-Freeman.” Language Teacher Online 21(6): http://langue.hyper.chubu.ac.jp/jalt/pub/tlt/97/jul/inquiry.html.

Tabor, W., Juliano, C., & Tanenhaus, M. K. (1997). Parsing in a dynamical system: An attractor-based account of the interaction of lexical and structural constraints in sentence processing. Language and Cognitive Processes, 12, 211-271.

Tabor, W., & Tanenhaus, M. K. (in press). Dynamical models of Sentence Processing. Cognitive Science.

Tudor, I. (2001). The dynamics of the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Language / Applied Linguistics - Studies

Cameron, L. (1999). The complex dynamics of language use on tasks. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the British Association for Applied Linguistics at the University of Edinburgh, September 1999.

Cameron, L. (2001/2002). Metaphor in Educational Discourse. REF: Continuum.

*Eoyang, G. H. and B. Fiala Stewart (1996). Discourse: patterns of complex adaptation / Complexity, society, and liberty. 2000 .  Available online: http://www.winternet.com/~eoyang/discourse.htm

Guastello, S. J. (2000). “Symbolic dynamic patterns of written exchanges: hierarchical structures in an electronic problem solving group.” Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences 4(2): 169-187.

Guastello, S. J., T. Hyde, et al. (1998). “Symbolic dynamic patterns of verbal exchange in a creative problem solving group.” Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences 2(1): 35-58.

Mellow, J. D., K. Reeder, et al. (1996). “Using time-series research designs to investigate the effects of instruction on SLA.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition 18: 325-350.

Syversen, M. A. (1999). The wealth of reality: an ecology of composition. Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Warner, R. M. (1992). “Cyclidity of vocal activity increases during conversation: support for a nonlinear systems model of dyadic social interaction.” Behavioral Science 37: 128-138.


Organisational Science - Theoretical

Arthur, W. B. (1987). “Path-dependent processes and the emergence of macrostructure.” European Journal of Operational Research 30: 294-303.

Dooley, K. and A. Van de Ven (1999). “Explaining complex organization dynamics.” Organization Science 10(3): 358-372.

Forrester, J. W. (1987). “Nonlinearity in high-order social systems.” European Journal of Operational Research 30: 104-109.

Griffiths, D. E., A. W. Hart, et al. (1991). “Still another approach to administration: chaos theory.” Educational Administration Quarterly 27 (2): 430-451.

Guastello, S. J. and D. D. Guastello (1998). “Origins of coordination and team effectiveness: a perspective from game theory and nonlinear dynamics.” Journal of Applied Psychology 83(3): 423-437.

Guastello, S. J. (2001). Managing Emergent Phenomena: Nonlinear dynamics in work organizations. Mawah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Poole, M. S., Van de Ven, A. H., Dooley, K., & Holmes, M. E. (2000). Organizational Change and Innovation Processes: Theory and Methods for Research. New York: Oxford University Press.


Organisational Science - Studies

Bales, R. F. and F. L. Strodtbeck (1967). Phases in group problem-solving. Interaction analysis: theory, research, and application. E. Amidon and J. B. Hough. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley : 89-102.

Guastello, S. J. (1995). “Facilitative style, individual innovation, and emergent leadership in problem solving groups.” Journal of Creative Behavior 29(4): 225-239.

Guastello, S. J. (1998). “Creative problem solving groups at the edge of chaos.” Journal of Creative Behavior 32(1): 38-57.

Holmstrom, J. and A.-P. Hameri (1999). “The dynamics of consumer response: a quest for the attractors of supply chain demand.” International Journal of Operations and Production Management 19(10): 993-1009.

Zaror, G. and S. J. Guastello (2000). “Self-organization and leadership emergence: a cross-cultural replication.” Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences 4(1): 113-119.


Political Science, Geography and Economics - Theoretical

Aldrich, J. H. (1980). “A dynamic model of Presidential nomination campaigns.” American Political Science Review: 651-667.

Brown, C. (1994). “Politics and the environment: nonlinear instabilities dominate.” American Political Science Review 37: 292-303.

Elliott, E., & Kiel, L. D. (Eds.). (1999). Nonlinear dynamics, complexity and public policy. Commack, NY, Nova Science.

Gilmore, C. G. (1995). A new test for chaos. Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics in the Financial Markets. Chicago, Irwin Professional Publishing.

Grossmann, S. and G. Mayer-Kress (1989). Chaos in the international arms race. Nature: 701-704.

Kiel, L. D. (1992). “The nonlinear paradigm: advancing paradigmatic progress in the policy sciences.” Systems Research 9(2): 27-42.

Kiel, L. D. and E. Elliott (1992). “Budgets as dynamical systems: change, variation, time and budgetary heuristics.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 2: 139-156.

Leydesdorf, L. and P. van den Besselar, Eds. (1994). New directions in technology studies: evolutionary economics and chaos. London, Pinter.

Portugali, J. (2000). Self-organization and the city. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Saperstein, A. M. (1984). Chaos - A model for the outbreak of war. Nature: 303-305.

Saperstein, A. M. and G. Mayer-Kress (1988). “A nonlinear dynamical model of the impact of SDI on the arms race.” Journal of Conflict Resolution32 : 636-670.


Political Science, Geography and Economics - Studies



Neo-behavioral Human Systems Analysis - Studies

Bavelas, J. B. (1973).  Effects of the temporal context of information.  Psychological Reports, 32, 695-698.

Bavelas, J. B. (1975).  Systems analysis of dyadic interaction:  The role of interpersonal judgment.  Behavioral Science, 20, 213-222.

Bavelas, J. B.  (1978). Systems analysis of dyadic interaction: Prediction from individual parameters. Behavioral Science, 23, 177-186.

Bavelas, J. B., McGee, D., Phillips, B., & Routledge, R. Microanalysis of communication in psychotherapy.  Human Systems.

Newtson, Darren (1994). The perception and coupling of behavior waves. In R. R. Vallacher & A. Nowak (Eds.), Dynamical systems in social psychology (pp. 139-167). New York: Academic Press.

Segal, L., & Bavelas, J. B.  (1983).  Human systems and communication theory.  In B. B. Wolman & G. Stricker (Eds.), Handbook of family and marital therapy (pp. 94-109).  New York:  Plenum.


Miscellaneous (a bit of a holding cell = papers awaiting classification)

Philippe, P. (2000). “Epidemiology and self-organized critical systems: An analysis in waiting times and disease heterogenity.” Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences 4(4): 275-295.

Tschacher W, Baur N, & Grawe K (2000). Temporal Interaction of Process Variables in Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Research 10: 296-309.










Add study by Dooley et al on Texas childbirths...